VR Type 02 - letter codes

Verbal Reasoning Type 2is a verbal reasoning question type commonly found in 11+Entrance Tests in the United Kingdom.

Also CalledCode Words
SubjectVerbal Reasoning


In each of the following questions, words have been written in code. The first word and its code has been given to you. You must find the second word or code. The alphabet has been provided to assist you.


The question can either…

give you the code and you have to find the word or…

give you the word and you have to find the code

To solve this question you look at the relationship between letters in the Alphabet Line. Work out how each letter of the word relates to each letter of the code. Once you know how to crack the code you will be able to work out the answer.

Video Tutorial


Constant Step

The step between the code-letters and the word-letters is constant.

Steps can be something like this

+1 +1 +1 +1 etc
+2 +2 +2 +2 etc
+3 +3 +3 +3 etc
+4 +4 +4 +4 etc

Incrementing / Decrementing Step

The steps between the letters can increase (or decrease).

Steps can be something like this

+3 +4 +5 +6 etc
+2 +4 +6 +8 etc
+5 +4 +3 +2 etc

Sign Flipper

The step between the letters letter flips between positive and negative (forwards or backwards in the Alphabet Line).

Steps can be something like this

+2 -2 +2 -2 etc

or, combined with Incrementing step(above), you could get

+1 -2 +3 -4 etc.

Mirror image types

These questions do come up in the exam from time to time. They are not mentioned in some method and technique books so listen up! The alphabet gets split in the middle so each letter on the left side of the alphabet has a partner on the right side of the alphabet. It’s a good idea for you to learn the pairings so you can spot these questions quickly. A good way to learn the alphabet pairs is to write the alphabet forwards and backwards as in the column to the right. The mirror pairs will line up vertically. Watch the video for an example.



Back to: Codes