# Non-verbal Reasoning Introduction

The following is a guide to help you understand the basics of Non-Verbal Reasoning: Components, Shifts, Manipulations/Changes and Sequences.

## Components

NVR questions are made using different components, such as lines, shapes, shading and patterns.

### Lines

Various line shapes and line types are used.

 Line Types: Line Thickness: Line Shapes: Examples of other line shapes:

### Shapes

Non-Verbal Reasoning shapes can be thought of in terms of two different groups.

 Standard Shapes: Non-Standard Shapes:

Shapes can be filled in a variety of ways.

 Irregular Patterns: Spotted Patterns:

## Shifts

In Non-Verbal Reasoning questions, shapes can shift in various ways. They can transpose, rotate, reflect or overlay.

### Transpose

Shapes can move vertically, horizontally or diagonally.

### Rotate

Shapes can move Clockwise or Anti-Clockwise.

### Reflect

 a) Mirror Reflection

Shapes can be mirrored using a line of Reflection (the shape will reflect and move from its original position).

 b) Vertical Flip c) Horizontal Flip

The line of Reflection runs through the shape (the shape will invert and stay in its original position).

### Overlay

Shapes can overlap each other or merge together.

## Manipulations

Shapes can be changed and manipulated in a variety of ways.

### Increasing/Decreasing

A shape can change in size or transform by squashing and stretching.

One or more new shapes can change the original shape.

 The original shape can be copied once or more often The number of shapes can change in regular intervals

### Deduction

Parts can be removed to create a new shape.

## Sequences

Shapes can make a sequence (pattern) by either repeating the same movement (or change to the components) or by increasing/decreasing in size or number in a regular interval.

#### Movement Sequence

Repetitive movement through rotation – 90 degrees clockwise. The shading also alternates in the above example.

#### Size and Number Sequence

Be aware that more than one change can happen in Non-Verbal Reasoning questions. In easier questions you might have just one or two changes that happen to shapes, however questions with as many as 5 different changes are more complex to solve and more practice is needed to be able to identify these changes quickly.

Have a go yourself and start with our free NVR Initial Assessment in My 11PLUS (Chuckra Online Assessment Tool).

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